scratchdj terminology - quoted from DOA/scratchdj.com Below is a list of terms defined as I have commonly experienced them used by other DJs and myself. Be aware that many moves and terms go by different names and are described differently by different DJs around the world. If you know of something that you think should be added to this page, or if you have a difference of opinion regarding how I have chosen to explain/define something then please let me know. By doing so maybe we can all learn something more and clear up some of the confusion. Turntablism - The art of manipulating/restructuring previously existing phonograph recordings to produce new, musically creative combinations of sounds using turntables and a mixer. Hamster Style - Normally a DJ setup would be configured with the right turntable playing on the right channel of the mixer and the left turntable playing on the left channel of the mixer. With a hamster style setup, however, the opposite is true. The right turntable plays through the left channel, and the left turntable plays through the right channel. Many DJs find it more comfortable to scratch hamster style since to do many moves it is easier to bounce the fader off of the side of the fader slot using your multiple fingers rather than your thumb. Personally I think that hamster style seems more conducive to flaring and doing continuous crabs. DJ members of the Bullet Proof Scratch Hamsters/Space Travellers crew are most commonly recognized as the first DJs to practice/demonstrate this style thus giving it the nickname "hamster" style. There are two ways to achieve this mixer configuration. One is to physically hook your turntables up to the opposite channels where they come into the back of your mixer, and the other is with a hamster switch. Normally a hamster switch only reverses your crossfader's configuration, while physically reversing your turntable cables reverses the crossfader and volume faders' configuration. Hamster Switch - A switch on a mixer that reverses the crossfader without reversing the volume faders so that you can scratch hamster style without physically hooking up the turntables to different channels on the back of the mixer. Baby Scratch - The simplest of scratches, the baby scratch is performed without the use of the crossfader by simple moving the record back and forth. A simple example would be one forward stroke, and one backward stroke (or vice versa) in sequence. Forward and Backward Scratches - Forward and backward scratches are also fairly simple scratches but unlike the baby scratch they are performed using the fader to cut the sound in and out. As an example, to perform 2 forward scratches you would just do two baby scratches with your record hand using your fader hand to cut the sound in when you move the record forward both times and out while you're pulling the record back both times so that all you hear are the 2 forward strokes. To do backward scratches you would do the same thing, but cut the backward strokes in and the forward strokes out. Tear Scratch - The tear is much like a baby scratch in that you do not need the fader to perform it, but unlike a baby scratch, when you pull the record back you pause your hand for a split second in the middle of the stroke. The result is one forward sound and two distinct backward sounds. This scratch can also be performed by doing the opposite and placing the pause on the forward stroke instead. A basic tear is usually performed with the crossfader open the entire time, but it can also be combined with other scratches such as flares for example by doing tears with you're record hand and cutting the sound in and out with your fader hand. Transform Scratch - Most famously associated with DJ Cash Money who is credited with coining the term "transform" or "transformer" scratch, this scratch is achieved by moving a sound with your record hand while repeatedly tapping the fader to cut the sound in and out in sequence with your fader hand as the sound plays. A transform scratch should begin with the sound off tapping the fader once you want the effect/sound to start. Imagine the crossfader as a button, and your thumb as the spring (or vice versa if you scratch hamster style). What you would be doing is tapping the button repeatedly as the sound plays giving a stuttering or tremolo type effect. Flare Scratch - Discovered/invented by DJ Flare and further developed most famously by DJ Qbert, this scratch is much like the transform in some ways, only instead of starting with the sound that you are cutting up off, you start with the sound on and concentrate on cutting the sound into pieces by bouncing the fader off of the cut out side of the fader slot to make the sound cut out and then back in a split second. Each time you bounce the fader off of the side of the fader slot it makes a distinct clicking noise. For this reason, flares are named according to clicks. A simple one click forward flare would be a forward scratch starting with the sound on as you bounce/click the fader against the side once extremely quickly in the middle of the forward stroke creating two distinct sounds in one stroke of your record hand and ending with the fader open. In the same manner, 2 clicks, 3 clicks, and even more clicks (if you're fast enough) can be performed to do different types of flares. The discovery and development of the flare scratch was instrumental in elevating this art form to the level of speed and technical scratching that we're so used to seeing today. Orbit Scratch - An orbit is most generally any scratch move performed both forward then backward or backward then forward in sequence. Usually when someone is referring to an orbit, however, they are most likely talking about flare orbits. For example, A 1 click forward flare and a 1 click backward flare in quick succession (altogether creating 4 very quick distinct sounds) would be a 1 click orbit. A 2 click forward flare and a 2 click backward flare in quick succession (altogether creating 6 very distinct sounds) would be a 2 click orbit, etc. Orbits can be performed once as a single orbit move, or sequenced to produce a cyclical neverending type of orbit sound. DJ Disk is primarily the one credited as the first person to discover/incorporate flare orbits into his scratching. Crab Scratch - The crab scratch was invented by DJ Qbert as a variation on DJ Excel's "twiddle." It seems that the two met up in Japan for the Vestax DJ competition in 1995 and Excel was asking Qbert how to flare. When he showed Qbert how he thought the flare was done he was actually doing the twiddle instead by using his thumb as a spring and "twiddling" the fader with 2 fingers. After this meeting, Qbert took the idea back to San Francisco with him and after showing the scratch to DJ Disk, he ended up creating a move that utilized all 3 to 4 fingers and thus the crab was born. Later in 1995, while the DMC USA finals were being held in San Francisco, a group of djs and judges which included The Beat Junkies, The X-Men (now called the X-ecutioners), and the rest of ISP among others got together for what would later be know as the "Famous Warehouse Session" at Yoga Frogs old mobile DJ warehouse. It was at this session that Qbert shared the new scratch. While the name "crab" seems self explanatory since it makes your hand look like a crab when you curl all of your fingers to perform it, according to Qbert the name originated elswhere. Apparently, he and Mixmaster Mike had just returned from Beirut, Lebanon around the same time that he invented it where they were served crepes one night after a show. He said that when the people over their pronounced crepes, it sounded more like "cccccreb" and since he thought it was funny, he used it to name the "cccccreb" scratch which everyone now pronounces as the crab. To do a crab scratch you quickly rub/tap the fader knob with 3 or 4 different fingers in sequence starting with the pinkie or ring finger while using the thumb as a spring to cut the fader back out after each tap (or in if you scratch hamster style). The result is much like a 3 or 4 tap transform (or a 3 or 4 click flare if you scratch hamster style) only much quicker than you could probably do with one finger. Many DJs find this move easier or more comfortable to perform hamster style by bouncing the fader off of the side of the fader slot, but the move can be performed both normal and hamster. As with orbits, crabs can be performed once as a single distinct move, or sequenced to produce a cyclical neverending type of crab sound. Twiddle Scratch - The Twiddle scratch is the precursor to the crab and it's introduction is most commonly attributed to DJ Excel of the UK. Quite basically, the twiddle is a crab scratch using two fingers instead of 3 or 4 to repeatedly "twiddle" the fader. Chirp Scratch - The chirp scratch, perhaps most utilized in the style of DJ Jazzy Jeff, is performed by fading the sound out with the crossfader as you push the record forward and fading the sound back in with the crossfader as you pull the record back. Done slowly the effect might not be too impressive, but done quickly and accurately, a chirp sounding scratch is the effect. While the concept is easy to understand, chirps are one of the hardest scratches to perfect with great speed and consistency. In a time where all that most beginner djs want to think about is going straight into learning continuous crabs and flares, the chirp is an often overlooked and difficult to perfect scratch that should be a part of all dedicated scratch djs skills. Scribble Scratch - A scribble is performed by tensing up the forearm muscles and moving the record back and forth with very small shaky sounding increments. The result is best described as a vibrating "scribbly" sounding effect.